Plant materials have been used for medicinal purposes from time memorial. Mistletoe (Viscum album) is a plant whose extracts are being used to treat various ailments in folk medicine till present day. The ability of mistletoe extract to treat these ailments was traced to its constituents, which are: flavonoids, lectins polypeptides, polysaccharides, saponins, tannis, tri-terpines and viscotixins. Its leaf extract contains several antioxidants including flavonoids, vitamins C and E. Cadmium is heavy metal that enters man’s system through various ways. It causes adverse effects on various body tissues by inducing oxidative stress. Since mistletoe leaf extract contains antioxidants, this study was carried out to investigate effects of its leaf extract on the microanatomy of prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats exposed to cadmium. Forty adult Wistar rats weighing 150-200g were randomly grouped into four, Groups A, B, C and D each containing ten animals. Group A animals were not given any injection. Groups B and C animals were injection intraperitoneally with 14mg of cadmium per kg body weight of animals, while group D were not injected also. Groups C and D were administered orally with40mg of mistletoe aqueous extract per kg body weight of the animals. Whereas Groups A and B were administered orally equivalent volume of distilled water. After four weeks, the Kidneys were excised for H&E staining. Histological section of group B animals shows that the Glomerulus are narrow urinary space and dilated convoluted tubules with disorganisedcytoarchitecture of the kidney. Groups A and D histological section shows almost similar cytoarchitecture, the glomerulus and other structures are normal whereas Group C shows that the glomerulus and other structures are almost similar to Group A. The above findings showed that aqueous extract of mistletoe reduced the adverse effects caused by cadmium on the rat kidney.
SOME EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MISTLETOE ON THE CADMIUM INDUCED KIDNEY DAMAGE IN WISTAR RATS